Racial Equity
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity

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Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity, 2016-20

What does this measure?

Median household income, in 2020 dollars. Half of incomes are below the median and half are above.

Why is this important?

Median household income is a gauge of overall economic health of the region and the financial resources of households. Examining income for different racial and ethnic groups is important as a measure of inequity.

How is our region doing?

In 2016-20, median incomes were substantially lower among African American ($66,334) and Hispanic ($59,822) households, and higher among white ($100,235) and Asian ($113,919) households. Racial/ethnic income disparities were similar at the state and national level. African Americans experienced the largest drop in income (40%) between 2000 and 2016-2020. During the same time, Latino incomes dropped 33%, followed by whites at 31% and for Asians at 23%. In 2016-2020, the median household income varied across the region. African Americans experienced the lowest median income at $44,401 in the town of Natick, followed by Hispanics earning $46,215 in the town of Hudson. In contrast, Asian Americans and whites living in the town of Dover had the highest median incomes both at $250,001.

Why do these disparities exist?

These large and persistent disparities in income are the result of historic and current policies and practices that disadvantaged people of color. Research has connected slavery and the inability of black Americans even after emancipation to fully participate in economic life to the wealth and income gaps still present today. Structural racism perpetuated by policies and practices that systematically disadvantage African American and Latino communities include inequitable education, low wages, job and wage discrimination, lack of access to capital, and globalization. Even when a recovery from the current economic crisis occurs, it is not expected to make up for the pre-existing racial disparities experienced over time unless policies are enacted to address these gaps.

Why do these disparities exist?

These large and persistent disparities in income are the result of historic and current policies and practices that disadvantaged people of color. Research has connected slavery and the inability of black Americans even after emancipation to fully participate in economic life to the wealth and income gaps still present today. Structural racism perpetuated by policies and practices that systematically disadvantage African American and Latino communities include inequitable education, low wages, job and wage discrimination, lack of access to capital, and globalization. Even when a recovery from the current economic crisis occurs, it is not expected to make up for the pre-existing racial disparities experienced over time unless policies are enacted to address these gaps.

Notes about the data

Figures are in constant 2020 dollars. The multiyear figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. The bureau combined 5 years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. However, because the information came from a survey, the samples responding to the survey were not always large enough to produce reliable results, especially in small geographic areas. CGR has noted on data tables the estimates with relatively large margins of error. Estimates with 3 asterisks have the largest margins, plus or minus 50% or more of the estimate. Two asterisks mean plus or minus 35%-50%, and one asterisk means plus or minus 20%-35%. For all estimates, the confidence level is 90%, meaning there is 90% probability the true value (if the whole population were surveyed) would be within the margin of error (or confidence interval). The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census. Data for this indicator are released annually in December.

Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity, 2016-20
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanicWhite
United States$91,775$43,674$54,632$68,943
Massachusetts$102,235$54,835$48,450$88,977
Region$113,919$66,334$59,822$100,235
Middlesex$118,704$66,860$66,986$109,082
Norfolk$107,600$78,400$94,167$108,263
Worcester$105,618$53,874$44,024$78,943
Acton town, Middlesex County$187,292$0******$0******$132,708
Ashland town, Middlesex County$250,001$94,212****$62,015**$115,059
Bedford town, Middlesex County$171,604**$73,269******$250,001$133,368
Bellingham town, Norfolk County$128,917****$0******$92,732******$102,626
Boxborough town, Middlesex County$186,023$0******$142,250$115,938**
Carlisle town, Middlesex County$0******$0******$0******$181,458**
Concord town, Middlesex County$177,115******$160,972$228,125**$156,139
Dedham town, Norfolk County$164,583****$85,054****$83,676$104,965
Dover town, Norfolk County$250,001$0******$189,653******$250,001
Framingham city, Middlesex County$110,490$56,542****$61,505$94,269
Franklin town, Norfolk County$159,470$0******$0******$118,046
Groton town, Middlesex County$250,001$0******$250,001$139,103
Harvard town, Worcester County$220,000******$0******$0******$175,313
Holliston town, Middlesex County$225,114$0******$167,614******$136,398
Hopkinton town, Middlesex County$227,222**$131,324******$0******$169,886
Hudson town, Middlesex County$124,408******$0******$46,215**$95,948
Lexington town, Middlesex County$221,585$199,063****$216,713**$170,604
Lincoln town, Middlesex County$176,111******$109,125******$50,768******$136,176
Littleton town, Middlesex County$99,750******$0******$250,001$127,060
Marlborough city, Middlesex County$110,417$101,464**$52,770**$85,493
Maynard town, Middlesex County$0******$0******$30,701******$107,415
Medfield town, Norfolk County$198,500****$0******$250,001$174,250
Medway town, Norfolk County$0******$126,184**$0******$140,331
Milford town, Worcester County$96,283******$77,902******$71,630**$88,583
Millis town, Norfolk County$0******$0******$0******$122,527**
Natick town, Middlesex County$105,929$44,401$91,681****$122,448
Needham town, Norfolk County$193,929**$0******$250,001$172,386
Sherborn town, Middlesex County$250,001$0******$0******$204,125**
Southborough town, Worcester County$199,803**$0******$147,875******$150,380
Stow town, Middlesex County$0******$0******$0******$145,701
Sudbury town, Middlesex County$211,528**$0******$157,396******$192,115
Walpole town, Norfolk County$197,037******$0******$99,811******$126,599
Waltham city, Middlesex County$113,611**$68,590$72,781$97,964
Wayland town, Middlesex County$250,001$0******$248,092$182,404
Wellesley town, Norfolk County$250,001$15,208******$114,792******$210,625
Westborough town, Worcester County$160,000$84,630******$0******$106,623
Westford town, Middlesex County$182,917$0******$0******$135,615
Weston town, Middlesex County$224,333**$0******$101,889******$200,909**
Westwood town, Norfolk County$165,375****$153,875******$195,433******$159,011

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Figures in 2020 dollars. Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.








INDICATORS
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity
Children Living in Poverty
Children Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity
Single-Parent Families
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity
Disengaged Youth
Reports of Domestic Violence
Arts, Entertainment and Recreation Establishments
Households Without Vehicles
Means of Transportation to Work
Households With Internet Access
Voter Participation Rate
Average Charitable Contribution
People Without Health Insurance
Drug Poisoning Mortality Rate
Crimes Against People
Incarceration Rates, by Race/Ethnicity
Change in Total Population
Change in Population by Race/Ethnicity
Foreign-Born Population
Language Diversity
Population by Age
Change in Population by Age/Gender
Seniors Living Alone
People with Disabilities
Change in Total Jobs by Sector
Unemployment Rate
Business Ownership by Race/Ethnicity
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Share of Workers who are Professionals, by Race/Ethnicity
Average Salary by Sector
High-Tech Jobs
Female to Male Earnings Ratio
Prekindergarten Participation
School Spending Per Student
Student Performance on Grade 3 English, by Student Group
Student Performance on Grade 8 Math by Student Group
Chronically Absent Students
High School Cohort Graduation Rate by Student Group
Education Levels of Adults
Education Levels of Adults, by Race/Ethnicity
College Admission Rate, by Race/Ethnicity
People Living in Poverty
People Living in Poverty, by Education Level
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity
Household Receiving Temporary Assistance
Participation in Food Assistance by Race/Ethnicity
Median Household Income
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity
Living Wage
80/20 Income Ratio
Access to Financial Services, by Race/Ethnicity
Homeownership Rates
Homeownership Rates, by Race/Ethnicity
Cost of Homeownership
Cost of Homeownership, by Race/Ethnicity
Cost of Rent
Cost of Rent, by Race/Ethnicity
Homelessness
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity
Children Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity
Incarceration Rates, by Race/Ethnicity
Change in Population by Race/Ethnicity
Business Ownership by Race/Ethnicity
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Share of Workers who are Professionals, by Race/Ethnicity
Student Performance on Grade 3 English, by Student Group
Student Performance on Grade 8 Math by Student Group
High School Cohort Graduation Rate by Student Group
Education Levels of Adults, by Race/Ethnicity
College Admission Rate, by Race/Ethnicity
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity
Participation in Food Assistance by Race/Ethnicity
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity
Access to Financial Services, by Race/Ethnicity
Homeownership Rates, by Race/Ethnicity
Cost of Homeownership, by Race/Ethnicity
Cost of Rent, by Race/Ethnicity


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