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Economy And Workforce
Female to Male Earnings Ratio

Maintaining


Female to Male Earnings Ratio

What does this measure?

The ratio of female to male median earnings, in 2020 dollars.

Why is this important?

Differences in the earning power of females and males contribute to higher poverty rates for female-headed households and to inequity for individuals and families in our community. Income is tied to a variety of life outcomes, including health and happiness.

How is our region doing?

In 2016-20, women in the MetroWest region earned a median income of $36,854, or 66 cents for every dollar earned by males (a female to male earnings ratio of 0.66). This ratio was up 12% from 58 cents in 2000. The ratio was on par with the nation (0.66) but slightly higher than the state (.65).

Notes about the data

The pay gap between females and males has many contributing factors, ranging from pay discrimination to the types of occupations and roles that females and males participate in to gaps in working when women give birth and care for children. In studies that control for occupation, experience, title and location, the pay gap narrows to as little as 5% or less. However, scholars and activists argue that cultural bias, societal assumptions and workplace design continue to contribute the pay gap, including by narrowing the viable workplace choices for females. Increased flexibility in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic may increase options and equity in some sectors, especially office-based work, though other female-dominated occupations, such as servers and health aides, may experience little change.

Notes about the data

Multiyear figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS). The bureau combined five years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census. Data for this indicator are expected to be released in December.

Female to Male Earnings Ratio
20002006-102011-152016-20
United States0.580.630.650.66
Massachusetts0.590.600.630.65
Region0.580.610.630.66
Middlesex0.590.630.630.66
Norfolk0.570.600.620.65
Worcester0.540.580.610.65
Acton town, Middlesex County0.410.430.460.44
Ashland town, Middlesex County0.600.790.670.71
Bedford town, Middlesex County0.490.540.530.54
Bellingham town, Norfolk County0.550.630.610.74
Boxborough town, Middlesex County0.430.470.430.39*
Carlisle town, Middlesex County0.350.470.410.38*
Concord town, Middlesex County0.440.520.410.50
Dedham town, Norfolk County0.640.710.720.67
Dover town, Norfolk County0.380.530.350.34*
Framingham city, Middlesex County0.610.580.660.67
Franklin town, Norfolk County0.540.520.58
Groton town, Middlesex County0.450.36*0.44*0.45*
Harvard town, Worcester County0.480.50*0.680.53
Holliston town, Middlesex County0.480.490.530.46
Hopkinton town, Middlesex County0.440.430.410.45*
Hudson town, Middlesex County0.540.680.580.66
Lexington town, Middlesex County0.430.350.420.41
Lincoln town, Middlesex County0.500.44*0.50*0.31*
Littleton town, Middlesex County0.530.51*0.480.53*
Marlborough city, Middlesex County0.560.630.630.77
Maynard town, Middlesex County0.560.600.630.70*
Medfield town, Norfolk County0.370.450.580.40*
Medway town, Norfolk County0.480.480.720.61*
Milford town, Worcester County0.580.540.580.60
Millis town, Norfolk County0.570.600.43*0.59
Natick town, Middlesex County0.560.630.620.62
Needham town, Norfolk County0.450.420.450.42
Sherborn town, Middlesex County0.350.71*0.31*0.38***
Southborough town, Worcester County0.400.510.560.53
Stow town, Middlesex County0.450.660.360.57**
Sudbury town, Middlesex County0.300.350.300.43
Walpole town, Norfolk County0.490.560.570.86
Waltham city, Middlesex County0.690.810.660.80
Wayland town, Middlesex County0.380.430.410.50
Wellesley town, Norfolk County0.240.160.210.21*
Westborough town, Worcester County0.490.420.440.50
Westford town, Middlesex County0.400.410.450.44
Weston town, Middlesex County0.210.24**0.26*0.35*
Westwood town, Norfolk County0.510.380.580.61

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%.




Median Earnings for Females
20002006-102011-152016-20
United States$16,327$24,308$23,644$26,257
Massachusetts$29,785$28,626$28,131$31,967
Region$51,210$38,603$34,991$36,854
Middlesex$34,545$33,625$33,604$39,264
Norfolk$36,148$35,448$34,917$39,755
Worcester$27,037$27,937$26,516$29,617
Acton town, Middlesex County$41,082$38,316$41,321$39,508
Ashland town, Middlesex County$40,630$48,194$45,253$49,212
Bedford town, Middlesex County$41,666$41,785$44,166$47,565
Bellingham town, Norfolk County$33,231$34,349$33,147$40,508
Boxborough town, Middlesex County$43,770$41,740$40,558$38,894*
Carlisle town, Middlesex County$49,260$59,931$49,879$43,333*
Concord town, Middlesex County$39,984$41,371$42,403$50,545
Dedham town, Norfolk County$36,594$37,818$39,039$43,910
Dover town, Norfolk County$51,837$53,859$44,526$61,154*
Framingham city, Middlesex County$32,295$26,994$26,944$33,043
Franklin town, Norfolk County$35,664$34,969$39,025
Groton town, Middlesex County$36,996$35,522*$35,167*$38,688*
Harvard town, Worcester County$49,730$39,640*$38,972$36,063
Holliston town, Middlesex County$37,295$36,796$37,672$37,902
Hopkinton town, Middlesex County$41,054$43,109$40,383$50,750*
Hudson town, Middlesex County$32,937$33,725$28,192$35,198
Lexington town, Middlesex County$44,271$38,859$43,961$51,358
Lincoln town, Middlesex County$39,943$44,674*$45,390*$29,564*
Littleton town, Middlesex County$38,918$35,730*$32,738$35,614*
Marlborough city, Middlesex County$33,332$32,671$28,791$34,792
Maynard town, Middlesex County$35,433$34,063$35,590$46,007*
Medfield town, Norfolk County$38,562$40,234$45,197$43,773*
Medway town, Norfolk County$35,306$35,530$45,330$47,353*
Milford town, Worcester County$30,835$27,289$28,898$30,110
Millis town, Norfolk County$37,434$36,354$29,617*$38,761
Natick town, Middlesex County$40,231$41,557$42,637$45,921
Needham town, Norfolk County$42,648$38,037$41,394$42,085
Sherborn town, Middlesex County$44,663$63,892*$34,533*$50,809***
Southborough town, Worcester County$40,024$47,401$49,617$45,678
Stow town, Middlesex County$42,446$49,948$35,241$42,386**
Sudbury town, Middlesex County$40,838$42,080$33,842$50,388
Walpole town, Norfolk County$34,133$36,572$35,115$51,458
Waltham city, Middlesex County$32,765$30,132$29,286$37,302
Wayland town, Middlesex County$40,506$44,982$44,892$51,708
Wellesley town, Norfolk County$28,415$18,798$22,129$24,726*
Westborough town, Worcester County$38,012$32,799$33,057$39,538
Westford town, Middlesex County$38,290$37,746$37,713$42,021
Weston town, Middlesex County$33,111$27,474**$36,781*$33,947*
Westwood town, Norfolk County$41,508$36,109$49,789$49,617

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Figures in 2017 dollars. Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%.




INDICATORS TREND
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Children Living in Poverty Maintaining
Children Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Single-Parent Families Increasing
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Disengaged Youth Decreasing
Reports of Domestic Violence Maintaining
Arts, Entertainment and Recreation Establishments Increasing
Households Without Vehicles Maintaining
Means of Transportation to Work Not Applicable
Households With Internet Access Not Applicable
Voter Participation Rate Increasing
Average Charitable Contribution Maintaining
People Without Health Insurance Decreasing
Drug Poisoning Mortality Rate Increasing
Crimes Against People Decreasing
Incarceration Rates, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Change in Total Population Increasing
Change in Population by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Foreign-Born Population Increasing
Language Diversity Increasing
Population by Age Not Applicable
Change in Population by Age/Gender Not Applicable
Seniors Living Alone Decreasing
People with Disabilities Maintaining
Change in Total Jobs by Sector Not Applicable
Unemployment Rate Increasing
Business Ownership by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Share of Workers who are Professionals, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Average Salary by Sector Not Applicable
High-Tech Jobs Maintaining
Female to Male Earnings Ratio Maintaining
Prekindergarten Participation Decreasing
School Spending Per Student Maintaining
Student Performance on Grade 3 English, by Student Group Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 8 Math by Student Group Not Applicable
Chronically Absent Students Increasing
High School Cohort Graduation Rate by Student Group Increasing
Education Levels of Adults Not Applicable
Education Levels of Adults, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
College Admission Rate, by Race/Ethnicity Decreasing
People Living in Poverty Increasing
People Living in Poverty, by Education Level Not Applicable
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Household Receiving Temporary Assistance Maintaining
Participation in Food Assistance by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income Maintaining
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Living Wage Not Applicable
80/20 Income Ratio Maintaining
Access to Financial Services, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Homeownership Rates Increasing
Homeownership Rates, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Cost of Homeownership Increasing
Cost of Homeownership, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Cost of Rent Not Applicable
Cost of Rent, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Homelessness Increasing
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Children Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Incarceration Rates, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Change in Population by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Business Ownership by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Share of Workers who are Professionals, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 3 English, by Student Group Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 8 Math by Student Group Not Applicable
High School Cohort Graduation Rate by Student Group Increasing
Education Levels of Adults, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
College Admission Rate, by Race/Ethnicity Decreasing
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Participation in Food Assistance by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Access to Financial Services, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Homeownership Rates, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Cost of Homeownership, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Cost of Rent, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable


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